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Métodos estadísticos para evaluar el error de la medición (fiabilidad) en las variables relevantes para la medicina deportiva (y III). // Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine (III).

El error mínimo de la medición (fiabilidad) durante la recogida de datos es extremadamente importante para la investigación de la medicina deportiva. Los principales componentes del error de la medición son la predisposición sistemática (ej., aprendizaje general o efectos de la fatiga en las pruebas) y el error aleatorio debido a la variación biológica o mecánica.

Ambos componentes del error serían significativamente cuantificados por el médico deportivo para relacionar el error descrito con los juicios sobre los “objetivos analíticos” (los requisitos del instrumento de medición para el uso práctico efectivo) en vez del significado estadístico de los indicadores de la fiabilidad.

Los métodos basados en los coeficientes de correlación y en la regresión proporcionan una indicación de la “fiabilidad relativa”. Dado que estos métodos están muy influidos por el rango de valores medidos, los investigadores deberían ser cautos al: (i) determinar la fiabilidad relativa aceptable, incluso si una correlación es mayor que 0.9; (ii) extrapolar los resultados de una correlación test-retest a una nueva muestra de individuos implicados en un experimento; y (iii) comparar las correlaciones test-retest entre diferentes estudios de la fiabilidad.

ABSTRACT

Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation.

Both error components should be meaningfully quantified for the sports physician to relate the described error to judgements regarding ‘analytical goals’ (the requirements of the measurement tool for effective practical use) rather than the statistical significance of any reliability indicators.

Methods based on correlation coefficients and regression provide an indication of ‘relative reliability’. Since these methods are highly influenced by the range of measured values, researchers should be cautious in: (i) concluding acceptable relative reliability even if a correlation is above 0.9; (ii) extrapolating the results of a test-retest correlation to a new sample of individuals involved in an experiment; and (iii) comparing test-retest correlations between different reliability studies.

Texto traducido de Sports Med 1998 Oct; 26 (4): 217-238. Título original: «Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine».

Tema: Investigación
Palabras clave: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

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